Corporate Resolution; Definition, How They Work, and Types

Corporate Resolution: Definition, How They Work, and Types

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Corporate Resolution Definition, Corporate Resolution Purpose and Importance, How Corporate Resolution Work, Corporate Resolution Types, Corporate Resolution Draft, Corporate Resolution Importance.

In the world of business, corporate resolutions play a crucial role in decision-making processes and shaping the direction of companies. These formal documents serve as a means to make important decisions, set policies, and establish guidelines within a corporate entity. In this article, we will delve into the definition of corporate resolutions, how they work, and explore various types of resolutions commonly encountered in the corporate landscape.


Corporate resolutions serve as formal documents that record decisions made by the board of directors or shareholders of a corporation. These resolutions are legally binding and outline the actions, policies, or guidelines to be followed by the company. By understanding the intricacies of corporate resolutions, businesses can ensure transparency, accountability, and effective governance.

What is a Corporate Resolution?

A corporate resolution is a formal written document that captures the decisions made by the governing body of a corporation. It acts as an official record of the deliberations and outcomes of meetings held by the board of directors or shareholders. Corporate resolutions can cover a wide range of topics, including major strategic decisions, financial matters, changes in company structure, and approval of contracts or agreements.

Purpose and Importance of Corporate Resolutions

Corporate resolutions serve several purposes within an organization. Firstly, they provide a clear framework for decision-making, ensuring that important choices are thoroughly discussed, documented, and implemented. Resolutions also establish a historical record of actions taken by the company, which can be invaluable in legal proceedings or audits.

Moreover, corporate resolutions play a vital role in defining the authority and responsibilities of the individuals within the organization. By clearly outlining the powers delegated to various parties, such as directors or officers, resolutions help maintain a well-defined chain of command and prevent misunderstandings.

How Corporate Resolutions Work

Corporate resolutions typically follow a structured process. The resolutions are typically proposed, discussed, and voted upon during board meetings or shareholder meetings. The process involves several key steps:

i) Proposal

A specific matter requiring a decision is presented to the board or shareholders. This can be initiated by directors, officers, or shareholders.

ii) Discussion

The proposal is thoroughly examined, and its potential implications are analyzed. Relevant information, such as financial reports, legal opinions, or expert advice, may be considered during this stage.

iii) Voting

A formal vote is taken to determine whether the resolution will be adopted. The specific voting requirements may vary based on the corporation’s bylaws and applicable laws.

iv) Documentation

Once a resolution is approved, it is recorded in writing. This documentation should include the resolution’s details, the date of adoption, and the names of the individuals who voted in favor or against it.

v) Implementation

The corporation takes the necessary steps to implement the resolution and ensure compliance with the approved decision.

Types of Corporate Resolutions

There are various types of corporate resolutions, each serving a specific purpose within the corporate governance framework. Let’s explore some common types of resolutions encountered in the business world:

i) Board Resolutions

Board resolutions are decisions made by the board of directors of a corporation. These resolutions often address matters such as the appointment or removal of officers, approval of budgets, declaration of dividends, and adoption of company policies. Board resolutions play a crucial role in steering the company’s direction and ensuring effective management.

ii) Shareholder Resolutions

Shareholder resolutions are decisions made by the shareholders of a corporation. These resolutions are typically brought up during annual general meetings or special shareholder meetings. Shareholders may use resolutions to address significant matters, such as changes to the company’s articles of incorporation, mergers, acquisitions, or removal of directors.

iii) Committee Resolutions

Committee resolutions are decisions made by committees formed within the corporation. Committees, such as audit committees or compensation committees, have specific areas of responsibility and decision-making authority delegated by the board of directors. Committee resolutions help streamline the decision-making process within the organization.

iv) Special Resolutions

Special resolutions are resolutions that require a higher threshold of approval compared to ordinary resolutions. These resolutions often involve significant changes to the company’s structure or constitution, such as amending the articles of incorporation or winding up the company. Special resolutions typically require a two-thirds majority or higher to pass.

v) Written Resolutions

Written resolutions are resolutions that are passed without convening a formal meeting. Instead, the resolution is circulated among the decision-making body, and each member can express their agreement or disagreement in writing. This method allows for more flexibility and efficiency in decision-making.

vi) Unanimous Resolutions

Unanimous resolutions are resolutions that require the full agreement and consent of all eligible voters. These resolutions are particularly significant as they demonstrate a unified decision within the company. Unanimous resolutions often address critical matters that require unanimous support, such as changes to the company’s bylaws or dissolution of the corporation.

vii) Ordinary Resolutions

Ordinary resolutions are resolutions that require a simple majority to pass. These resolutions cover a wide range of routine matters, including annual financial statements approval, appointment of auditors, or election of directors. Ordinary resolutions are commonly encountered in day-to-day corporate decision-making.

viii) Extraordinary Resolutions

Extraordinary resolutions are resolutions that require a higher majority than ordinary resolutions but fall short of special resolutions. These resolutions often involve significant matters, such as alteration of the company’s share capital or approval of major contracts. The required majority for extraordinary resolutions may vary based on jurisdiction and company bylaws.

ix) Consent Resolutions

Consent resolutions are resolutions that are passed based on the unanimous consent of the decision-making body. In this case, instead of going through a formal meeting or written circulation, each member provides their consent to the resolution. Consent resolutions are particularly useful when time is of the essence or convening a meeting is impractical.

x) Procedural Resolutions

Procedural resolutions are resolutions that establish the rules and procedures for conducting meetings within the company. These resolutions outline the guidelines for a quorum, voting procedures, and any other administrative aspects related to decision-making processes. Procedural resolutions help ensure orderly and efficient meetings.

Drafting a Corporate Resolution

When drafting a corporate resolution, several key elements should be included:

i) Title

Clearly state that the document is a corporate resolution.

ii) Company Information

Include the full legal name, registered address, and any relevant identification numbers of the company.

iii) Resolution Details

Describe the proposed action or decision in a clear and concise manner, providing necessary background information.

iv) Approval Clause

Specify the approval process, such as the required majority or percentage of votes needed for the resolution to pass.

v) Effective Date

Indicate when the resolution becomes effective unless otherwise stated.

vi) Signatures

Include the names, titles, and signatures of the individuals authorized to approve the resolution, such as directors or shareholders.

Importance and Legal Implications

Corporate resolutions play a crucial role in establishing a clear record of decisions and actions taken by a company’s governing body. They provide transparency, ensure compliance with legal requirements, and protect the interests of shareholders. Resolutions also serve as evidence of the company’s intent and can be used to support legal defenses, financial audits, or during disputes.


Corporate resolutions are essential tools in the governance and decision-making process of a company. They provide a formal framework for recording and authorizing significant actions and decisions, ensuring transparency, accountability, and legal compliance. By understanding the definition, functioning, and types of corporate resolutions, companies can effectively document and validate their governance processes.

When drafting a corporate resolution, it is crucial to consult with legal professionals familiar with the specific laws and regulations governing corporate governance in your jurisdiction. They can provide guidance on the appropriate content, formatting, and procedures to ensure the resolution is legally binding and valid.

By utilizing corporate resolutions effectively, companies can establish a robust decision-making framework, maintain accurate records, and demonstrate a commitment to transparent and responsible governance.


Q1: What is the purpose of a corporate resolution?

Ans: A corporate resolution serves as a formal record of decisions made by the governing body of a corporation. It establishes guidelines, policies, and actions to be taken by the company.

Q2: Who can propose a corporate resolution?

Ans: Corporate resolutions can be proposed by various parties depending on the type of resolution. Board resolutions are typically proposed by directors, while shareholder resolutions are proposed by shareholders. Committee resolutions are proposed by the respective committees.

Q3: Are corporate resolutions legally binding?

Ans: Yes, corporate resolutions are legally binding documents. Once approved, they become official directives for the company and must be followed accordingly.

Q4: How are corporate resolutions passed?

Ans: Corporate resolutions are typically passed through a voting process. The decision-making body, whether it’s the board of directors or shareholders, casts its votes. The approval threshold can vary, ranging from a simple majority to a two-thirds majority or unanimous consent, depending on the nature of the resolution and applicable laws.

Q5: Can corporate resolutions be amended?

Ans: Yes, corporate resolutions can be amended if necessary. During the discussion and voting process, amendments can be proposed and incorporated into the resolution before the final decision is reached.

Q6: What happens if a corporate resolution is not followed?

Ans: Failure to comply with a corporate resolution can have legal implications and may result in breach of fiduciary duties. It is important for companies to adhere to the decisions outlined in the resolutions to maintain transparency, accountability, and proper governance.

Q7: Are there any specific requirements for drafting a corporate resolution?

Ans: While the specific requirements may vary depending on jurisdiction and company bylaws, a well-drafted corporate resolution should clearly state the decision, provide necessary background information, and outline the actions to be taken. It is advisable to seek legal guidance to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Q8: Can written resolutions be used instead of formal meetings?

Ans: Yes, written resolutions can be used as an alternative to formal meetings. They allow for decision-making without convening a physical or virtual meeting. Each member of the decision-making body can express their agreement or disagreement in writing.

Q9: What is the difference between ordinary and special resolutions?

Ans: Ordinary resolutions require a simple majority to pass and are commonly used for routine matters. Special resolutions, on the other hand, require a higher majority and are used for significant changes or decisions that have a substantial impact on the company.

Q10: How long should corporate resolutions be kept?

Ans: Corporate resolutions should be kept as part of the company’s official records for the duration specified by applicable laws or regulations. It is advisable to maintain these records for several years to ensure compliance and facilitate historical reference if needed.

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